React Fundamentals for Beginners

React is a powerful JavaScript library that has revolutionized the way developers build web applications. It is used by companies like Facebook, Instagram, Airbnb, and many more to build fast, scalable, and dynamic web applications. If you are a beginner and want to get started with React, this article will cover the fundamentals of React and give you a head start.

What is React?

React is a JavaScript library that allows you to build user interfaces (UI) using a component-based architecture. A React application is made up of several small, reusable components that are responsible for rendering a specific part of the UI. React was developed by Facebook and released in 2013 as an open-source library.

The main advantage of using React is that it provides a simple way to manage complex UIs by breaking them down into smaller, reusable components. This makes the code more maintainable, scalable, and easier to understand. React also uses a virtual DOM, which allows it to update the UI efficiently by only re-rendering the parts of the UI that have changed.

Components in React

In React, everything is a component. A component is a small, reusable piece of code that is responsible for rendering a specific part of the UI. Components can be nested inside other components, making it easy to build complex UIs.

To create a component in React, you can use either a function or a class. Here’s an example of a functional component:

function HelloWorld() {
  return <h1>Hello, World!</h1>;

In this example, the HelloWorld component is a function that returns some JSX. JSX is a syntax extension for JavaScript that allows you to write HTML-like code in your JavaScript code. It is not mandatory to use JSX, but it makes it easier to create components that closely resemble the final HTML output.

Here’s an example of a class component:

class Counter extends React.Component {
  constructor(props) {
    this.state = { count: 0 };

  render() {
    return (
        <p>Count: {this.state.count}</p>
        <button onClick={() => this.setState({ count: this.state.count + 1 })}>Increment</button>

In this example, the Counter component is a class that extends the React.Component class. It has a constructor that sets the initial state of the component, which is an object that contains the count value. The render method returns some JSX that displays the count value and a button that increments the count when clicked.

State and Props

State and props are two important concepts in React. State is an object that contains data that can change over time, while props are read-only properties that are passed down from a parent component to a child component.

In the Counter component example above, the count value is stored in the component’s state. When the button is clicked, the setState method is called, which updates the state and triggers a re-render of the component.

Props are used to pass data from a parent component to a child component. Here’s an example:

function Greeting(props) {
  return <h1>Hello, {}!</h1>;

function App() {
  return <Greeting name="John" />;

In this example, the App component passes the name prop to the Greeting component, which displays a personalized greeting.


React is a powerful library that can help you build fast, scalable, and dynamic web applications. By breaking down your UI into smaller, reusable components, you can make your code more maintainable and easier to understand.